Searching for a Genetic Relationship Between the Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal Polymorphisms

Paulina Wolańska-Nowak
Agnieszka Parys-Proszek
Witold Pepiński
Ireneusz Sołtyszewski

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Law and Forensic Science, Volume 15 (2018/1), pages 60-68.

Submitted: June 1, 2018.

The authors declare there is no conflict of interest.


Abstract: The present paper addresses the question of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between Y-chromosomal and mtDNA HVR1 distributions based on a population sample of southern Poland. Genetic independence of both polymorphisms would validate the use of the product rule in the assessment of matching probability, as is accepted for autosomal STRs.For this purpose, a total of 330 typed unrelated male samples were assigned to 17 Y-haplogroups, 32 mtDNA haplogroups, and 91 combined haplotypes(including 50 singletons). The average gene diversity for the two polymorphisms was 0.71045. The expected heterozygosity values were 0.69491 and 0.72598 for Y-chromosomalandmtDNA haplogroups, respectively.The exact test for pairwise LD indicated that there was no association between the analysed polymorphisms (median p-value=0.30781). The normalized entropy difference (NED) was0.02. These results prove lack of association between mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal markers and provide acceptable arguments for multiplying together likelihood ratios obtained from both genetic markers without any further assumptions.

Keywords: combined likelihood ratio,linkage disequilibrium, mtDNA, Y-chromosome, haplogroups, southern Poland

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Postmortem Vitreous Humor Analysis for Xenobiotics and their Metabolites

Marcin Łukasik
Faculty of Applied Toxicology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
Anna Małkowska
Faculty of Applied Toxicology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
Paulina Anna Cieślak
Faculty of Applied Toxicology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
Ireneusz Sołtyszewski
Department of Criminalistics and Forensic Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland. Corresponding author: e-mail: ireneusz.soltyszewski@uwm.edu.pl
Mirosław Szutowski
Faculty of Applied Toxicology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland

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Law and Forensic Science, Volume 15 (2018/1), pages 1-8.

Submitted: September 14, 2017.

The authors declare there is no conflict of interest.


Abstract: This article discusses the current state of knowledge on quantifying xenobiotics and their metabolites in vitreous humor as part of postmortem toxicological analysis. The evaluated compounds included: opiates and their metabolites, cocaine and its metabolites, amphetamine and its metabolites, cannabinoids, phencyclidine, benzodiazepines, and ethyl alcohol and biomarkers of its abuse.

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Comparing Law as Science with Science in the Law: Preliminary Thoughts

Kirk W. Junker
University Professor of Law, University of Cologne, Faculty of Law, and Director of International Master of Environmental Science Programme, University of Cologne.

Law and Forensic Science, Volume 14 (2017/2).

Submitted: September 18, 2017.

The author declares there is no conflict of interest.


Abstract: Comparative law often compares institutions or sources of law from various countries. This article rather compares civil law and common law families, but does use Germany and the USA to represent the two families respectively. Rather than focus upon institutions or sources of law, this article compares how these two families understand their practices of law, specifically in reference to science. First the concept of comparison itself is examined through its western conceptions in the discipline of rhetoric. Then the relationship of law to science is discussed, comparing the legal standard of scientist as authority on science to judge as ultimate adjudicator on scientific matters. The author concludes that law requires an evaluative element in its practices if it is to effect justice and further concludes that the evaluative element is better conceived by philosophy than science. Lawyers are thus encouraged to seriously consider evaluative practices, but are invited to do so on their own, rather than treat philosophy as a body of knowledge only present through the philosopher as expert witness.

Keywords: comparativism, rhetoric, science, evidence, scientism, moral, evaluative

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Wpływ szkolenia na skuteczność wykrywania kłamstwa (The Layman’s Ability to Detect Deception – Can it Be Improved by a Short Training?)

Jagoda Dzida
Wydział Prawa i Administracji Uniwersytetu im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu

Law and Forensic Science, Volume 14 (2017/2).

Submitted: May 24, 2017.

The author declares there is no conflict of interest.


Abstract: The study was conducted to verify, whether it is possible to improve people’s ability to detect deception by a short training, and if so, to what extend it can be improved. The results are important due to the potential applicability of non-instrumental deception detection methods in the criminal procedure. The experiment was conducted on the group of students who were asked to decide, whether the persons, depicted on the video, are telling the truth or are lying. The procedure was repeated after a short training that gave the students more detailed information about the most reliable verbal and nonverbal cues to deception. The results revealed that a short training may improve lie detection by about 22%. The implications for future research are discussed.

Keywords: deception detection, lie, training

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